Rise of Indie Action Troupes in Southern China

Some of the early pioneers that helped in transitioning southern opera from Mandarin to Cantonese. Also note that there were various “amateur troupes… referred to as zhishi ban, they advocated a reformist if not a pro-revolutionary agenda, hoping to harness popular theater for the sake of political and social change in China.” These were the early “indie” action movements in Southern China.

Source: The Rise of Cantonese Opera by Ng Wing Chung.